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If online information is not controlled well, it can be a bad influence." 13 Vietnam worries particularly about the use of the Internet to promote political reform, opposition groups, or viewpoints critical of the state in areas such as international relations.14 Critiques of the state or its high-level leaders remain taboo.15 Amnesty International claims that at least 10 people have been arrested for political activity using the Internet, with seven sentenced to prison.16 For example, Nguyen Dan Que was sentenced to 30 months in jail for writing and posting on the Internet an article about the lack of freedom of information in Vietnam; he was released as part of an amnesty in February 2005, but remains under surveillance.17 Dissident Le Chi Quang was sentenced to four years in prison for posting an online article that criticized a border accord between China and Vietnam.18 Finally, Vietnam is sensitive to criticism regarding its record on human rights.For example, a blogger in Vietnam posted a photo of a copy of the Asia Wall Street Journal purchased in Ho Chi Minh City.19 The newspaper had been edited using old-fashioned means: the offending text was blacked out.Like many states in Southeast Asia and in other regions of the world, Vietnam tries to leverage the Internet to provide economic development and benefit, while simultaneously struggling to limit access to content that might destabilize the Communist state.2 This tenuous balancing act finds its clearest expression in Vietnam's 2001 decree on management, provision, and use of Internet resources, which requires that Internet "management capacity must be in line with development requirements, while at the same time consistent measure must be taken to prevent abuse of the Internet to affect the national security and break national virtues and traditional good customs" to achieve the "national cause of industrialization and modernization."3 Among other methods, the state monitors the use of cybercafés and employs filtering of Internet content to control the information its citizens can access online.Vietnam's Internet filtering regime demonstrates an ongoing struggle between the desire to increase Internet usage for economic purposes and the desire to limit its effects politically, and between the capabilities of filtering technology and the limitations of bandwidth, ISP resources, and users' tolerance.This section explores these areas and their relevance to Vietnam's Internet filtering regime.Sensitive issues in Vietnam include corruption, ethnic unrest, and political opposition, including topics related to democracy or criticism of the state's single-party system.4 The Vietnamese government is concerned about allegations of corruption after several high-profile incidents, including the firing of the minister for agriculture and rural development in June 2004 for failing to prevent a multi-million dollar (USD) corruption scandal in his ministry,5 allegations of corruption in the Vietnam Post and Telecommunications Corporation (VNPT, the state telco provider),6) and embezzlement in the Transportation Ministry that led to the minister's resignation and to the arrest of a deputy minister.7 The Prime Minister announced plans for an anti-corruption agency in late 2004.8 The state is also concerned about ethnic unrest, particularly in rural areas.34 IXPs can connect with each other (peering) and with the international Internet.35 Thus, connectivity is managed so that only IXPs may maintain connections with the wider Internet.36 ISPs must obtain upstream access by leasing it from IXPs.This likely makes filtering Internet content easier for Vietnam by limiting external access points that must be controlled.

(VDC),37 is owned by Vietnam Posts and Telecommunications Group.38 (VDC was previously owned by the Vietnam Posts and Telecommunications Corporation, or VNPT, which also became part of the Vietnam Post and Telecommunications Group after a reorganization approved in March 2005 and implemented in January 2006.39 The reorganization appears to contemplate splitting VNPT into three different Telecommunications Corporations divided by geographic region.40 The Group is now known as VNPT.41) A Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications official stated that there are three international gateways, with VNPT / VDC, Viettel, and FPT each controlling one.42Officials at those companies, however, indicate that in practice VNPT / VDC has three gateways, Viettel has three, and FPT has four.43 Formally, the Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications lists 13 Internet access services providers (IASPs), six IXPs, and 11 OSPs as licensed in Vietnam.44 However, ONI research indicates that entities with the legal right to offer services in Vietnam may not be yet doing so, and knowledgeable sources disagree about the precise number of ISPs actually operating.In the past, all IXPs were required to purchase physical connectivity from Vietnam Telecom International (VTI).Currently, IXPs can theoretically maintain independent connections to the international Internet, but it is not clear how many do so in practice.VN domain names being registered each day.29 Vietnam is also planning to implement a state-controlled Vietnamese-language second-level domain,30 presumably similar in concept to the new Chinese-language top-level domains set up by China.31 Blogging remains quite limited in Vietnam, and most bloggers who post from inside the state do so in English.Informal discussions with bloggers in Vietnam indicate that some users are concerned about repercussions if they post in Vietnamese to a blog, even about less sensitive topics.

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